À la rencontre des merveilles de la Nature …
Des abysses aux sommets, embarquez pour un voyage extraordinaire à la rencontre des merveilles de la Nature! Depuis 4 milliards d’années, l’évolution ne cesse d’inventer des formes et des modes de vie qui surprennent et qui font la biodiversité actuelle. Ce livre vous fait découvrir 101 espèces animales et végétales, parfois disparues, parmi les plus insolites que la Nature ait conçues. Chaque espèce est présentée en double page, associant une spectaculaire image et un texte explicatif. Plongez dans ce livre et laissez-vous guider à la rencontre de ces 101 merveilles de l’évolution qu’il faut avoir vues dans sa vie!
Sortie de notre article portant sur les cryocarbonates dans le massif du mont-blanc
Notre article : « Improved discrimination of subglacial and periglacial erosion using 10Be concentration measurements in subglacial and supraglacial sediment load of the Bossons glacier (Mont Blanc massif, France) » à été selectionné par l’éditeur de Earth Surface Processes and Landforms en 2016 et à gagné le prix du meilleur article publié en 2015
The citation provided by Cheif Editor Stuart Lane read: “In a year where it was difficult to decide between four outstanding papers, from across the spectrum of geomorphology, the paper by Guillon et al. stood out because of the way in which it combined thoughtful field data collection, careful and rigorous experimental design, and insightful analysis to address a question of longstanding importance: what is the relative importance of subglacial and periglacial erosion in high mountain basins.”
Le beau livre de la terre
De la formation du système solaire à l’anthropocène, une histoire en 200 étapes
Patrick de Wever (Auteur), Jean-François Buoncristiani (Auteur) –
DUNOD Beau livre (broché)
Résumé : Des premiers temps géologiques à la naissance de l’être humain, cette histoire de la terre illustrée raconte 200 événements qui jalonnent l’évolution étonnante de notre planète.
Publication du papier sur l’utilisation de la LIBS afin de déterminer les roches volcanique en Islande.
In situ Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy as a tool to discriminate volcanic rocks and magmatic series, Iceland
- •Portable LIBS applied to field geology
- •Fast semi-quantitative geochemical analysis of volcanic rocks and magmatic series
- •Discriminant analysis and statistical treatments for LIBS compositional data
This study evaluates the potentialities of a lab-made pLIBS (portable Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) to sort volcanic rocks belonging to various magmatic series. An in-situ chemical analysis of 19 atomic lines, including Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Si, Sr and Ti, from 21 sampled rocks was performed during a field exploration in Iceland. Iceland was chosen both for the various typologies of volcanic rocks and the rugged conditions in the field in order to test the sturdiness of the pLIPS. Elemental compositions were also measured using laboratory ICP-AES measurements on the same samples. Based on these latter results, which can be used to identify three different groups of volcanic rocks, a classification model was built in order to sort pLIBS data and to categorize unknown samples. Using a reliable statistical scheme applied to LIBS compositional data, the classification capability of the pLIBS system is clearly demonstrated (90–100% success rate). Although this prototype does not provide quantitative measurements, its use should be of particular interest for future geological field investigations.
Publication de l’article sur l’origine des vallées tunnel
Does porewater or meltwater control tunnel valley genesis? Case studies from the Hirnantian of Morocco
- •We compared processes involved in the formation of two Upper Ordovician tunnel valleys.
- •Models of tunnel valley formation are driven by porewater pressures or meltwater flows.
- •The distribution of ice streams controls tunnel valley formations and morphologies
Several Ordovician tunnel valleys are exposed in the Moroccan Anti-Atlas Mountains, including the Alnif and the Foum Larjamme tunnel valleys, located 150 km away from each other. Sedimentological and deformational analyses of these two glacial troughs reveal that differing processes lead to their formations.
The Alnif tunnel valley contains numerous deformation structures within sediments both below and above the main glacial erosion contact surface. Ball-structures and clastic dykes occur within preglacial sediments down to 35 m below glacial incisions while overlying glacial sediments contain fluted surfaces, clastic dykes, dewatering structures, folds and radial step normal faults. The characteristics of the Alnif tunnel valley can be explained by a porewater pressure-driven model of formation where the localized increase of basal shear stress and porewater pressure underneath subglacial deforming zones lead to the development of a dense hydrofracture network in the preglacial bed. These processes of hydraulic brecciation promoted subglacial remobilization of the preglacial material and contributed to the formation of the tunnel valley.
The Foum Larjamme tunnel valley displays undisturbed preglacial sediments and few dewatering structures at the base of the glacial sedimentary infill which suggests relatively low porewater pressures within the tunnel valley during formation. This second type of tunnel valley where porewater pressure remained relatively low appears to have been formed by meltwater erosion. The undulating base of the Foum Larjamme tunnel valley implies progressive erosion by a stable subglacial braided network of Nye-channels, or alternatively by channels migrating laterally during episodic minor subglacial outbursts.
These two tunnel valleys highlight the regional variability of processes involved in the formation of tunnel valleys. The distribution of palaeo-ice streams in North Africa illustrate that morphologies and processes involved in the formation of tunnel valleys vary between ice stream and inter-ice stream zones due to variations in meltwater availability, the topography and bed lithological properties.
Premiers résultats des modélisations climatiques sur la glaciation Ordovicienne. En collaboration avec le CEA et l’IPGP
Abstract. The Ordovician is a particular Period during Earth History highlighted by abundant evidence for continental-size polar ice-sheets. Modelling studies published so far require a sharp CO2 drawdown to initiate this glaciation. They mostly used non-dynamic slab mixed-layer ocean models. Here, we use a general circulation model with coupled components for ocean, atmosphere and sea ice to examine the response of Ordovician climate to changes in CO2 and paleogeography. We conduct experiments for a wide range of CO2 (from 16 to 2 times the preindustrial atmospheric CO2 level (PAL)) and for two continental configurations (at 470 Ma and at 450 Ma) mimicking the Middle and the Late Ordovician conditions. We find that the temperature–CO2 relationship is highly non-linear when ocean dynamics is taken into account. Two climatic modes are simulated as radiative forcing decreases. For high CO2 concentrations (≥ 12 PAL at 470 Ma and ≥ 8 PAL at 450 Ma), a relative hot climate with no sea ice characterises the warm mode. When CO2 is decreased to 8 PAL and 6 PAL at 470 and 450 Ma, a tipping-point is crossed and climate abruptly enters a runaway icehouse leading to a cold mode marked by the extension of the sea ice cover down to the mid-latitudes. At 450 Ma, the transition from the warm to the cold mode is reached for a decrease in atmospheric CO2from 8 to 6 PAL and induces a ~ 9 °C global cooling. We show that the tipping-point is due to the existence of a quasi-oceanic Northern Hemisphere, which in turn induces a minimum in oceanic heat transport located around 40° N. The peculiar shape of the oceanic heat transport in the Northern Hemisphere explains the potential existence of the warm and of the cold climatic modes. This major climatic instability potentially brings a new explanation to the sudden Late Ordovician Hirnantian glacial pulse that does not require any large CO2drawdown.
Pohl, A., Donnadieu, Y., Le Hir, G., Buoncristiani, J.-F., and Vennin, E. 2014. Effect of the Ordovician paleogeography on the (in)stability of the climate, Clim. Past Discuss., 10, 2767-2804, doi:10.5194/cpd-10-2767-2014